Overseen by Dr Safeera Kholvadia, the Execumed Travel Clinic can advise you on all your travel medical needs from recommended vaccines to medications to ease motion sickness.
Arrange an appointment before your new trip and let us take care of all your travel medical needs.
Basic Health Assessments
Destination-specific travel risk assessments
Individualised vaccination recommendations and administration
Comprehensive travel reports focusing on health and safety issues based on your itinerary.
Should you have any medical concerns about your next travel destination, visit us at the Execumed Travel Clinic for comprehensive information and peace of mind.
Travellers to malaria-infected areas are always advised to take every precaution against contracting this disease. Malaria is a potentially fatal illness and is easily transmitted to humans through infected mosquito bites. The disease is widespread in Africa, and over one million people die of malaria every year on the continent, mostly children under the age of five.
Contact the Execumed Travel Clinic for more information on how you can guard against this potentially fatal disease.
Description (Taken from www.travax.nhs.uk)
’Malaria is spread by the bite of the female anopheline mosquito. Most anopheline species prefer to feed between dusk and dawn which is when most transmission of malaria occurs.
Malaria is now predominantly a disease affecting Africa, South and Central America, Asia and the Middle East. Travellers from non endemic countries can contract the disease when visiting these areas and become ill while abroad or present with symptoms on return home.
When malaria risk varies within a country, those living in non malarious parts can become infected when travelling to malarious areas. In some malarious areas, for example in parts of southeast Asia, there is a seasonal pattern of transmission. Mosquitoes like a humid atmosphere and breed only in fresh water so their numbers usually increase after periods of heavy rainfall or monsoons.
View full size Malaria map on WHO website
Contact Execumed today to discuss malaria prevention.
‘Yellow fever is an acute viral infection of humans and monkeys caused by a Flavivirus.
- Yellow fever virus is transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito (most commonly the Aedesaegypti mosquito).
- Monkeys act as reservoirs in rural areas where transmission to humans can occur.
- Yellow fever is not spread by direct human to human contact.More common in rural areas.
- Outbreaks in urban areas occur when infected people introduce the virus into densely populated areas and the mosquito vector is present to spread the virus from human to human.
- Yellow fever transmission is found in the following regions of the world:
- tropical areas of Africa
- South America
- eastern Panama
Yellow Fever in Africa
View full size Yellow Fever Africa map on WHO website
Yellow Fever in the Americas
View full size Yellow Fever Americas map on WHO website
This map is reproduced with permission of and acknowledgement to WHO.
- Incubation – 3 – 6 days.
- Illness – after 3 – 4 days (acute phase) most patients improve and symptoms disappear – in a few cases the disease can develop into a toxic and life threatening phase.
- Convalescence – recovery from yellow fever confers lifelong immunity.
- Observation of clinical symptoms – however yellow fever is difficult to diagnose, especially during the early stages.
- It can be confused with malaria, typhoid, dengue, hepatitis and other diseases.
- Blood tests can detect yellow fever antibodies produced in response to the infection.
- No specific antiviral treatment for yellow fever – supportive care to treat dehydration and fever.
ADVICE TO TRAVELLERS
- A traveller’s risk of yellow fever is determined by their general risk assessment e.g. country visited, length of stay, city or rural, activities etc.
- Mosquito bite avoidance rules should be adhered to – the mosquito that spreads yellow fever bites predominantly during the day.
- Yellow fever vaccine should be considered for travellers at risk.
WHEN TO CONSIDER VACCINATION
- In 2011 the WHO Yellow Fever Working Group changed the recommendations for yellow fever vaccination.Reference:261 Vaccination is recommended for endemic and transitional risk areas (i.e. where there is stable transmission or periodic and epidemic transmission). Vaccination is generally not recommended for areas with low potential for exposure but may be considered in some instances such as prolonged stays in rural areas, heavy exposure to mosquitoes, or inability to avoid mosquito bites. Yellow fever vaccination is not recommended for areas with no risk.
Yellow Fever Certificates
- The yellow fever certificate, issued when a traveller is given yellow fever vaccination, provides proof of having received yellow fever vaccination and is required by some countries as part of the measures to prevent disease spread across borders:
- yellow fever is the only vaccine for which there is an internationally recognised certificate which may be required as a condition of entry.
- the World Health Organisation is the controlling body for this initiative with guidance written into the International Health Regulations (IHR).
- control and regulation of yellow fever is in place to prevent global spread of the disease.
- A Yellow Fever Vaccination Certificate may be required where:
- There is significant risk within the country and every traveller is required to show a certificate of vaccination on entry as a requirement.
- A traveller is entering into a country which is free of disease (but has the vector and monkey population and therefore there is a risk of the disease becoming established in that country) and is entering from a country where monkeys harbour the virus – the destination country requires proof of vaccination.
- Where a Yellow Fever Vaccination Certificate is needed, it takes 10 days to become valid following vaccination.
Note: Where a certificate is not required for entry into a country, this does not necessarily mean there is no risk of disease and vaccine may still be recommended.
Note: October 2011, once the current stock of International Certificates of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (ICVP) has expired, the new supply of ICVP will include a page comprising of an exemption certificate. An exemption certificate may be given to a traveller who requires a certifcate for entry purposes but is not medically fit to receive yellow fever vaccination.
Contact Execumed today to discuss the need for a yellow fever vaccination.